Dr. Malachi Noked

Dr. Malachi Noked


Dr. Noked conducted his Ph.D. studies as an Eshkol scholar under the supervision of Prof. Doron Aurbach at Bar-Ilan University, studying carbon materials for electrochemical water treatment and supercapacitors. For his studies Dr. Noked accepted the Excellent Graduate Student award of the Israel chemical society. After graduating, Dr. Noked was chosen as a Fulbright Ilan-Ramon fellow and conducted his postdoctoral studies at the energy frontier research center, leaded by the University of Maryland, where he utilized nano-fabrication and surface modification techniques for applied electrochemistry, and served as instructor in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering.



2004-2007 : B. Sc., Biophysics (multidisciplinary program in science) Bar-Ilan Unversity, Israel.

2007-2009 : MSc in Chemistry (Electrochemistry) Advisor: Prof. Doron Aurbach Department of Chemistry- Group of Electrochemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Israel

2009-2013: Ph.D. in Chemistry (Electrochemistry) Advisor: Prof. Doron Aurbach Department of Chemistry- Group of Electrochemistry, Bar-Ilan University, Israel

2013 – 2016: Post-doctoral Research Associate (Fulbright Ilan Ramon scholar) Department of Material Sciences and Engineering Department of Chemistry and Bichemistry, Energy Frontier Research Center http://www.efrc.umd.edu/ University of Maryland, College Park.  Mentors- Professor Gary Rubloff, and Professor Sang-Bok Lee

Honors and Fellowship:

2009-2012 - Doctoral Fellowship of excellence in nanotechnology- BINA center.

2010- Schechter Award for Excellence – Chemistry department BIU

2011-2013- Eshkol fellowship for Ph.D. students - The Israeli Ministry of Science.

2013- Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting participant (Chemistry).

2013- Excellent PhD student of Chemistry- Israel Chemical Society.

2013-2014 - Fulbright fellowship for postdoc.

2013-2014 - Fulbright Ilan-Ramon Fellowship for postdoc (1 chosen from all 2013 Fulbrighters).



  1. “Development of Anion Stereoselective, Activated Carbon Molecular Sieve Electrodes Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition” . M. Noked, E. Avraham, Y. Bohadana, A. Soffer, and  D. Aurbach. J.Phys.Chem.C  2009, 113, 7316–7321
  2. “The Rate-Determining Step of  Electroadsorption Processes into Nanoporous Carbon Electrodes Related to Water Desalination”. M. Noked, E. Avraham, A. Soffer, and D. Aurbach, J. Phys. Chem. C 2009, 113, 21319–21327
  3. “Limitations of Charge Efficiency in Capacitive Deionization II. On the Behavior of CDI Cells Comprising Two Activated Carbon Electrodes”. E. Avraham, M. Noked, Y. Bouhadana, A. Soffer, and D. Aurbach 2009 Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 156, 10, 157-162 
  4. “Assessing the Concentration Effect on Hydration Radii in Aqueous Solutions by Electroadsorption on a Carbon Molecular Sieve Electrode”. M. Noked, E. Avraham, A. Soffer, and D. Aurbach J. Phys. Chem. C 2010, 114, 13354–13361.
  5. “Limitations of charge efficiency in capacitive deionization processes III: The behavior of surface oxidized activated carbon electrodes”. E. Avraham, M. Noked, Y. Bouhadana, A. Soffer, D. Aurbach.  Electrochimica Acta 2010, 56, 441–447.
  6. “The electrochemistry of activated carbonaceous materials:  past, present, and   future”.  M. Noked, A. Soffer & D. Aurbach J Solid State Electrochem (2011) 15:1563–1578
  7. “A straightforward and reliable method for the characterization of carbon nanotube dispersions” N.D.R. Leifer, M. Noked *, G. D. Nessim , D. Aurbach  C A R B ON 4 9 ( 2 0 1 1 ) 1 0 3 3 –1 0 5 1
  8. “The Feasibility of Boron Removal from Water by Capacitive Deionization”    E. Avraham, M. Noked, A. Soffer and D. Aurbach Electrochimica Acta 56 (2011) 6312–   6317
  9. “The Dependence of the Desalination Performance In Capacitive De-ionization Processes (CDI) at Dynamic Steady State on the Potential of Zero Charge of the Electrodes”. E. Avraham, M. Noked, I. Cohen, A. Soffer, D. Aurbach. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 158 (2011), p. 168
  10.  “Capacitive Deionization of NaCl Solutions at Non-Steady-State Conditions: Inversion Functionality of the Carbon Electrodes”. Y. Bouhadana, E. Avraham, M. Noked, M. Ben-Tzion, A. Soffer, and D. Aurbach J. Phys. Chem. C, 2011, 115 (33), pp 16567–16573.
  11. “Enhanced Charge Efficiency in Capacitive Deionization Achieved by Surface-Treated Electrodes and by Means of a Third Electrode” I. Cohen, E. Avraham, M. Noked, A. Soffer, and D.Aurbach  J. Phys. Chem. C, 115 (2011), p. 19856.
  12.  “Composite Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Electrodes for Electrical Double-Layer Super Capacitors” M. Noked, S. Okashy, T. Zimrin, D. Aurbach Angewandte Chemie 124, 7, 1600–1603, (2012)
  13. Thick, Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes / Carbon Composite Electrodes for Electrical Double-Layer Capacitors.   M. Noked*, S. Okashy, T. Zimrin & D. Aurbach   CARBON 58 (2013) 134 –1 3 8
  14.  “The study of Carbon/CNT/MoO3 electrode for aqueous Pseudo-Supercapacitors” S. Okashy, M. Noked, T. Zimrin & D. Aurbach* Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 160 (9) A1489-A1496 (2013)
  15. “Composite Carbon Nano-Tubes (CNT)/Activated Carbon Electrodes for Non-Aqueous Super Capacitors Using Organic Electrolyte Solutions” A. Borenstien, M. Noked, S. Okashy, and D. Aurbach Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 160 (8) A1282-A1285 (2013).
  16. “Oxidation of Dimethyl Sulfoxide Solutions by Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen” D. Sharon, M. Afri, M. Noked, A. Garsuch, A. A. Frimer, and D. Aurbach* J. Phys. Chem. Lett. (2013), 4, 3115−3119.
  17.  “Role of boric acid in nickel nanotube electrodeposition: a surface-directed growth mechanism”. L. M. Graham , S. Cho , S. K. Kim , M. Noked  and S. B. Lee. Chem. Commun., (2014) , 50, 527-529 (Journal IF 6.834)
  18.  "Millimeter-Tall Carpets of Vertically Aligned Crystalline Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized on Copper Substrates for Electrical Applications." E. Teblum, M. Noked, J. Grinblat, A. Kremen, M. Muallem, Y. Fleger, Y. R. Tischler, D. Aurbach, and G. D. Nessim. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118, 33 (2014): 19345-19355.
  19.  "Fabrication of 3D Core-Shell Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube@ RuO2 Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes through a RuO2 Atomic Layer Deposition Process."  Gregorczyk, K. E., A. C. Kozen, X. Chen, M. A. Schroeder, M. Noked, A. Cao, L. Hu, and G. W. Rubloff. ACS Nano, 2015, 9 (1), pp 464–473 (Journal IF 12.881)
  20.  "Atomic Layer Deposition and in Situ Characterization of Ultraclean Lithium Oxide and Lithium Hydroxide." Kozen, A.C., A. J. Pearse, C.F. Lin, M. A. Schroeder, M. Noked, S. B. Lee, and G. W. Rubloff. J. Phys. Chem. C 118, no. 48 (2014): 27749-27753. (Journal IF 4.772).
  21.  "Activation of MnO2 cathode by water-stimulated Mg2+ insertion for magnesium ion battery." Song J., M. Noked, E. Gillette, J. Duay, G. W. Rubloff, and S. B. Lee. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., (2015), 17, 5256-5264(Journal IF 4.493)
  22.  “Next-Generation Lithium Metal Anode Engineering via Atomic Layer Deposition” A. Kozen, C. Lin, A. Pearse, M. Schroeder, X. Han, L. Hu, SB Lee, G. Rubloff, M. Noked* ACS Nano Articles ASAP DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b02166 (Journal IF 12.881)
  23. “The DMSO-Li2O2 Interface in the Rechargeable Li-O2 Battery Cathode: Theoretical and Experimental Perspectives on Stability”, M. Schroeder, A. Pearse, , SB Lee, G. Rubloff, K. Leung, M. Noked* ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, Articles ASAP DOI:10.1021/acsami.5b01969 (Journal IF 6.723)
  24.  “An Investigation of the Cathode-Catalyst-Electrolyte Inter-face in Aprotic Li-O2 Batteries” M. Schroeder, A.J. Pearse, A.C. Kozen, SB Lee, G. Rubloff,  M. Noked*                   Chem. Mater.2015, 27 (15), pp 5305–5313 
  25.  “Atomic Layer Deposition of the Solid Electrolyte LiPON”,  Kozen, A. C., A.J. Pearse, C.F. Lin, M. Noked, and G. W. Rubloff. Chem. Mater.2015, 27 (15), 5324–5331 .
  26. “Capacitance Behavior of Ordered Mesoporous Carbon/Fe2O3 Composites: Comparison Between 1D Cylindrical, 2D Hexagonal, and 3D Bicontinuous Mesostructures”.  J. Hu, M. Noked, E. Gillete, Z. Gui, SB. Lee CARBON 93 (2015) 903 – 914
  27.  “Enhancing the Reversibility of Mg/S Battery Chemistry through Li+ Mediation” Tao Gao, Malachi Noked*, Alex J Pearse, Eleanor Gillette, Xiulin Fan, Yujie Zhu, Chao Luo, Liumin Suo, Marshall A Schroeder, Kang Xu, Sang Bok Lee*, Gary W. Rubloff*, Chunsheng Wang* J. Am. Chem. Soc., Just Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b07820 
  28.  “Electrode Degradation Study of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes on a 3D Integrated Current Collector”.  M. Schroeder, A.J. Pearse, A.C. Kozen, SB Lee, G. Rubloff, M. Noked* Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 162 (12) A2372-A2377 (2015).
  29. “Dual-template synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbon/Fe2O3 nanowires: high porosity and structural stability for supercapacitors” J. Hu,   M.  Noked,   E. Gillette,   F. Han, Z. Gui, C. Wang,  SB Lee   J. Mater. Chem. A, 2015,3, 21501-21510 
  30. “Protocols for Evaluating and Reporting Li-O2 Cell Performance” M. Noked,* MA. Schroeder, A. Pearse,  GW. Rubloff, SB Lee* J. Phys. Chem. Lett. Accepted 
  31. “Solid Electrolyte LiPON as a Protective Nano-Cladding Layer for 3D High Capacity Conversion Electrodes” C.F Lin, M.Noked, A C. Kozen, C Liu, O Zhao, K Gregorczyk, L Hu, SB Lee, G W. Rubloff ACS Nano Just accepted 
  32.  "Mechanistic Role of Li+ Dissociation Level in Aprotic Li-O2 Battery" Sharon, Daniel; Hirsberg, Daniel; Salama, Michael; Afri, Michal; Frimer, Aryeh; Noked, Malachi; Kwak, Won-Jin ; Sun, Yang-Kook; Aurbach, Doron ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces2016, 8 (8), 5300–5307
  33. “Mapping the Challenges of Magnesium Battery” Jaehee Song, Emily Sahadeo, Malachi Noked*, and Sang Bok Lee* The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2016 7 (9), 1736-1749
  34. “A Rechargeable Al/S Battery with an Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte” T. Gao, X. Li, X. Wang, J. Hu, F. Han, X. Fan, L. Suo, A. J. Pearse, S. B. Lee, G. W. Rubloff, K. J. Gaskell, M. Noked*, C. Wang*, Angew. Chem. 2016, 128, 10052.
  35. “Electrochemical Thin Layers in Nanostructures for Energy Storage” Malachi Noked, Chanyuan Liu, Junkai Hu, Keith Gregorczyk, Gary W Rubloff, and Sang Bok Lee Accounts of Chemical Research 2016 49 (10), 2336-2346
  36. “ALD Protection of Li-Metal Anode Surfaces – Quantifying and Preventing Chemical and Electrochemical Corrosion in Organic Solvent”. Lin Chuan-Fu, Kozen A. C., Noked M., Liu C., Rubloff G. W.  Adv. Mater. Interfaces, 3: 1600426. (2016).  
  37. “Ultrathin Surface Coating Enables the Stable Sodium Metal Anode”. Luo, W., Lin, C.-F., Zhao, O., Noked, M., Zhang, Y., Rubloff, G. W. and Hu, L.  Adv. Energy Mater. (2016), 1601526. doi:10.1002/aenm.201601526





In our laboratory we utilize state of the art synthesis techniques for interfacial modification of electrochemically active surfaces by functional thin films.

Students in our lab experience synthesis through surface directed chemical reaction in vacuum (atomic/molecular layer deposition ALD/MLD) and in carefully chosen electrolyte solutions (surface directed electrodeposition).

The characterization of the synthesized thin films and the fundamental studies of their efficacy as surface modification materials, are conducted using state of the art microscopic and spectroscopic surface analysis facilities available in Bar-Ilan University and currently being constructed in our lab.


The complex physicochemical conditions on electrochemically active surfaces lead to degradation mechanisms through parasitic chemical and electrochemical reactions. This interfacial instability frustrates technology applications, and significantly hinders the progress to electrochemical devices with high sensitivity (electrochemical sensors), high energy performances (batteries), efficient faradaic surface reaction (water splitting, oxygen reduction reaction e.g) and long term stability (purification systems, batteries etc.).

  Elucidating the fundamental degradation mechanisms of electrochemically active interfaces, and developing mitigation strategies in accordance with the explored pathways, are the main interest of our research team.

We utilize state of the art thin film synthesis techniques (ALD/MLD), and self limiting electrochemical deposition, in order to develop new chemistries for functional thin films, which impede the parasitic reaction, but yet- mediate the desired electrochemical reaction in optimized kinetics.  


Research Themes:

Though the technological impact of our work is broad (Electrodes in batteries, fuel cells, sensors, electro-catalytic surfaces, photo-voltaic cells, water splitting etc.), we mainly aim to understand the mechanism of the material degradation, and to use the fundamental findings as guidelines for synthesis of functional thin films.


As model systems, the scientifically informed designed thin films are synthesized and studied in accordance with three research themes:

  • Stabilization of batteries electrodes in implanted medical devices, using multi-components atomic/molecular layer deposition (ALD) on the electrode interface


  • Designing arrays of nano-materials with controlled morphology and structure for electrochemical devices.



  • Modified metallic anode surfaces for next generation rechargeable batteries.